Managerial or corporate finance is the task of providing the funds for a corporation’s activities. For small business, this is referred to as SME finance. It generally involves balancing risk and profitability, while attempting to maximize an entity’s wealth and the value of its stock.
Long term funds are provided by ownership equity and long-term credit, often in the form of bonds. The balance between these forms the company’s capital structure. Short-term funding or working capital is mostly provided by banks extending a line of credit.
Another business decision concerning finance is investment, or fund management. An investment is an acquisition of an asset in the hope that it will maintain or increase its value. In investment management — in choosing a portfolio — one has to decide what, how much and when to invest. To do this, a company must:
- Identify relevant objectives and constraints: institution or individual goals, time horizon, risk aversion and tax considerations
- Identify the appropriate strategy: active v. passive — hedging strategy
- Measure the portfolio performance
Financial management is duplicate with the financial function of the Accounting profession. However, financial accounting is more concerned with the reporting of historical financial information, while the financial decision is directed toward the future of the firm.