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What are the Causes of Economic Recession

What is an economic recession?

In a perspective as broad as nation wide, or macroeconomically, a recession is a slightly obvious decline in Gross Domestic Product (GDP, just think of it as the total wealth or wellness all people within a nation produce within a given year) compared to previous quaters, or in a business cycle. A decline is only regarded as a recession if it has lasted more than 2 quarters. Also, the decline should not be too apparent as to be an economic depression (approx. 10% drop of GDP) or even more devastating as to be a economic collapse.

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Resource circulation in the macroeconomic loops

This flow-chart diagram illustrates how governments, households, corporations and international entities interact in 3 major markets to run the economy as a whole: workforce market, financial market and commodity market.

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How to Read a Stock Listing / Quote

Examine the table below. The first two columns in the listing provide the highest and lowest prices at which the stock has traded in the last 52 weeks. The next two columns give the name of the stock and its symbol. The next figure is the dividend payout. The 4.84 means that the firm paid shareholders an annualized cash dividend in the last quarter of $4.84 per share (i.e., the actual quarterly dividend was $1.21). Read the rest of this entry »

3 Dimensions of Risk Transfer: Hedging, Insuring and Diversifying (Differences Compared)

One is said to hedge a risk when the action taken to reduce one’s exposure to a loss also causes one to give up of the possibility of a gain. For example, farmers who sell their future crops before the harvest at a fixed price to eliminate the risk of a low price at harvest time also give up the possibility of profiting from high prices at harvest time. So, they are hedging their exposure to the price risk of their crops.

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What are Insuring and Hedging (Comparison)

There is a fundamental difference between insuring and hedging. When you hedge, you eliminate the risk of loss by giving up the potential for gain. When you insure, you pay a premium to eliminate the risk of loss and retain the potential for gain.

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What are Junk Bonds

Junk bonds, also known as high-yield bonds, are nothing more than speculative-grade (low-rated or unrated) bonds. Before 1977, almost all junk bonds were "fallen angels, " that is, bonds issued by firms that originally had investment-grade ratings but that had since been downgraded. In 1977, however, firms began to issue "original-issue junk."

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What are the Industry Life Cycles

A typical industry life cycle might be described by four stages: a start-up stage, characterized by extremely rapid growth; a consolidation stage, characterized by growth that is less rapid but still faster than that of the general economy; a maturity state, characterized by growth no faster than the general economy; and a stage of relative decline in which, the industry grows less rapidly than the rest of the economy, or actually shrinks.

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How Funds Are Sold

Most mutual funds have an underwriter that has exclusive rights to distribute shares to investors. Mutual funds are generally marketed to the public either directly by the fund underwriter or indirectly through brokers acting on behalf of the underwriter. Direct marketed funds are sold through the mail, various offices of the fund, over the phone, and, increasingly, over the Internet. Investors contact the fund directly to purchase shares. For example, if you look at the financial pages of your local newspaper, you will see several advertisements for funds, along with toll-free phone numbers that you can call to receive a fund’s prospectus and an application to open an account with the fund.

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