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The Macroeconomics Circulation Flowchart

From a macroeconomic perspective, households, government and firms (corporations) are the 3 fundamental players of money and resources. This flowchart diagram below illustrates how they interact and exchange resources.

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Circular flow of income

Firms and households interact and exchange resources in the big Circular Flow of Income illustrated by the diagram below.

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Who gives transfer payments?

Transfer payments are given by government of various levels to under-privileged society members┬álike unemployed workers, the elderly who’s unable to maintain a decent life by inability to work and such.

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Current GDP, GNP of United States and other countries

As of the most up to date data from authoritative sources such as International Monetary Fund, World Bank and CIA World Fact Book, below is the worldwide nations ranked by GDP. United States is ranked second immediately after EU with a GDP of more than 13,000 billions in 2007. Read the rest of this entry »

What are the Causes of Economic Recession

What is an economic recession?

In a perspective as broad as nation wide, or macroeconomically, a recession is a slightly obvious decline in Gross Domestic Product (GDP, just think of it as the total wealth or wellness all people within a nation produce within a given year) compared to previous quaters, or in a business cycle. A decline is only regarded as a recession if it has lasted more than 2 quarters. Also, the decline should not be too apparent as to be an economic depression (approx. 10% drop of GDP) or even more devastating as to be a economic collapse.

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Resource circulation in the macroeconomic loops

This flow-chart diagram illustrates how governments, households, corporations and international entities interact in 3 major markets to run the economy as a whole: workforce market, financial market and commodity market.

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What are the Industry Life Cycles

A typical industry life cycle might be described by four stages: a start-up stage, characterized by extremely rapid growth; a consolidation stage, characterized by growth that is less rapid but still faster than that of the general economy; a maturity state, characterized by growth no faster than the general economy; and a stage of relative decline in which, the industry grows less rapidly than the rest of the economy, or actually shrinks.

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Why currency appreciates in real terms during inflation stabilization?

A common thread in the exchange rate-based stabilization experiences we have reviewed is a real currency appreciation accompanied by a growing deficit on current account. Only countries like Israel and Chile, which have avoided drastic real currency appreciation, have been able to reduce inflation without generating subsequent crisis and pressures for policy reversals. Thus, an understanding of why real appreciation occurs after the government targets the exchange rate is central to understanding why many stabilization efforts fail. There are three main theories explaining real appreciation. Read the rest of this entry »

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